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Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Asurgarh - The Ancient Fort Of Kalahandi

Asurgarh is very ancient in the history and culture of Western Orissa. The very literal meaning of Asurgarh is “the fort of demons”. Forts bearing names Asurgarh are found in different parts of Western Orissa usually on the bank of river or in the outskirt of the villages/towns. From very ancient times people had associated such places with rulers and administrators. In course of time, such places were abandoned and only structural remains and antiquities are found. These places are fearful for common people but are important for archaeologists and historians. Forts bearing the names ‘Asurgarh’ though found at near Barpali, Rampur, Manamunda and Adgaon, exploration and excavation are conducted only at Asurgarh, near Manamunda in the district of Sonepur and near Narla in the Dist. of Kalahandi.

Asurgarh fort is situated one and half miles to the north-east of Rupra road Railway station on Sambalpur-Vishakhapatnam railway lines. The fort of Asurgarh is located at latitude 20’: 30’ and longitude 83’: 83’. It is about 20 K.Ms from Bhawanipatna, the district headquarters of Kalahandi. About one K.M. to the south of this fort, there is an old village named Asurgarh and it is perhaps the fort was named after the village or it may also that the village has been so named after the old fort. This fort is the largest and most important one and the excavation there throw significant light on the history and culture of South Kosala and Mahakantara region.The ramparts as found at present are about four meters in width and 15 to 50 meters in height and are made of rubbles and mud with bricks facing close to the western ramparts, the river Sandul flows to the north to meet the river Tel and there by providing a natural boundary.

The P.G. Dept of History, Sambalpur University and the Dept. of Culture, Govt. of Orissa had undertaken limited excavation of Asurgarh jointly in the year 1973.5 Antiquities were already exposed at Asurgarh as mentioned by Scholar P.K. Deo,6 late Maharaja of Kalahandi.

Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Rindo Majhi (Freedom fighter)

Everyman struggles till his breaths last. That struggles may be individual or social. But history witness very less that very few people sacrifice their life for society or nation. Rindo Majhi is one among them.Rindo Majhi may not be a popular or well- acquainted name in the history of freedom struggle of India. But he was a great man for rural tribal people of kalahandi district who lived in the route less dense forest.He himself is an example of his own freedom struggle.

Rindo Majhi, born in Urladani situated in deepest Kalahandi region close to the boundary of Phulbani district, was very much courageous and freedom conscious from the childhood like other scheduled tribe people. He could not tolerate others sanction over his freedom. He was very much aware but, conservative of the culture, custom, rituals and traditions of the Kondhas.

Kondhas are generally worshipper of nature. They revere soil as their mother. They have a strong belief that everybody lives in the world by mercy of soil. So they never hesitate to sacrifice one of them for mother soil who gives and continues lives to everyone.With such custom they celebrate Maria every year. As the Britishers treated this system as superstition and antisocial, they raided the tribal areas of Kalahandi and Phulbani under Major General Campbell. But the tribal people kept much faith and believe on their own custom and tradition and raised voice against the Britishers.

On the other side the Kondhas were nearest to Kalahandi King. So they were tax free people. But, when the Britishers captured Nagpure, Kalahandi went under their control and as per the institution of Kings and Zamindars of Kalahandi collected tax from the Kondhas. There rose the voice of Kondhas and Rindo Majhi was the key figure of the movement. Though he knew well about the power of the Britishers attacked repeated to them and their flattering people. All the Kondhas also assisted him a lot as he was the chief among them. Right at that time another Kondha chief named Chakra Bisoi with his people attacked the Britishers repeatedly and turned non-coerative towards to them. Being fad up over the activities the Britishers were in search of Chakra Bisoi inquisitively.

In 1853 Lt. Macniell arrested Rindo Majhi and the Kondhas chief was imprisoned in Rasalkanda jail without trial. The fire of revolution grew much and worse among the Kondhas by the arrest of Rindo Majhi. Rightly after two years, in 1855 Lt. Macneill with him brought Rindo Majhi who was tied with iron chain in legs and hands and moved village to village in order to created fear among the Kondhas leaders. But the Kondhas went out of toleration witnessing such brutal and inhuman act upon their leader Rindo Majhi. On 10 December the Kondhas attacked the residence of Lt. Macneill at Urladani with their weapons like arrows and boxes, axes etc. But the Britishers had guns and powers. The fight went terrible though it was very difficult to fight against the Britishers. Hundreds and hundreds people died. Lt. Macneill escaped narrowly because the Tahasildar of Kandhamal Dinabandhu Pattanaik came and rescued him and his people. The Britishers being revengeful over the fight hanged Rindo Majhi and he remained as unlighted sure in the records of freedom struggle movement. But he is a figure who sacrificed his life for his people, nation and soil.

Thursday, November 11, 2010

Nuakhai - Important festival of Kalahandi

The most important festival of western orissa,comprising the districts of sambalpur,Bolangir,Kalahandi,Sudergarh and some area of Phulbani is Nuakhai.
Generally it takesplace in the bright half of the month Bhadrab or Bhadraba on an auspicious day that is fixed by the astrologers. In the ex-state arears the date is fixed according to the instructions of the ruling chiefs.

Nuakhai is a festival and celebration of happiness. Preparations starts a fortnight prior to the day,most of the houses are cleaned,neatly plastered and decorated by the housewives.On this occasion peoples old and young wear new clothes,different types of local sweets and foods are cocked. All the family members are assembled together, after offering the new rice to the deity they all set together and take the new rice, along with different types of Manda-Pitha Khiri-Puri etc., After finishing the food they take the blessing of the Istha-Devi and from other elders of the family. In the evening it is habitual and obligatory to have meat, as it is believes that one who does not eat meat on the Nuakhai day, shall born as a heron in his future birth. What ever may be the fact it is a celebration of the mass. People forget their personal differences and greet each other in this point of view Nua-Khai is not just welcoming the new rice-paddy it is a festival which welcomes general happiness and mass development of the society. People may stay in far of lands, for there livelihood, but in the Nuakhai they must come to celebrate this festival with other members of the family with pageantry.

Thought the festival is intended for eating new rice of the year.It is observed as a general festival.Meeting friends and relatives,singing,dancing and merry-making are the parts of this festival.Onthis occasion the new rice is cooked with milk and sugar and then offered as Bhog to goddess Laxmi.Then the eldest member of the family distributes the same to other members.

Friday, September 3, 2010

Jhami Yatra - Lanjigarh


Lanjigarh is a village situated to south-east direction of Bhawanipatna, near the Kalahandi-Rayagada border.It is 65km from the district head quater Bhawanipatna by road.The 428ft. high summit of the Niyamgiri hlls situated just on the district border,overlooks a narrow valley to its north of which Lanjigarh forms the apex.Lanjigarh was the headquarters of Lanjigarh Zamindari under Kalahandi .

The village is surrounded by heavy forests and hills.The deity "Dokari" is greatly revered in the area.The local Jhami Yatra or Jhamu Yatra in the month Chaitra (March - April) is an occasion when thousands of people gather and witness the walking on burning charcoal by a number of devotees.This Yatra is so famous in that area and also Kalahandi-Rayagara district .Jhami Yatra a major draw attended by thousands of people from far and near. This festival going to 6-7days or around 1 week.

Thursday, August 12, 2010

Beautifull Place:- GudaHandi

The Gudahandi hills are situated in the vicinity of Khaligarh, a tiny village close to the Koraput District boarder, about 17.6 km northeast of Ampani. Ampani is 77 K.Ms from Bhawanipatna on the road towards Nawarangpur. In the Gudahandi hills are some ancient caves bearing pictographic paintings of remote antiquity, Khaligarh is a very out of the way place, the 17.6 K.Ms of Ampani being car track parts of which pass through dense forest.

Three small hills, all of curved length, are together known as the Gudahandi hills.The North and the South hills join each other in the East leaving a courtyard like valley in between which is open towards the West. This valley is paved by a huge block of stone slopping down to the East. Just at the foot of these hills facing the valley are rows of caves. Excepting one in the North, all the caves are small in size. Although at places hewed to shape by human hand they generally appear to have been formed by nature itself in red slate stone. Pictographic paintings in Red and Black colours appear at the entrances of some of caves in the Southern row. These have not yet been thoroughly studied but it is generally surmised that they bear approximately to the picture scripts of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Besides Gudahandi in Kalahandi District, Bikramkhol and Ulapgarh in Sambalpur District and Naraj in Cuttack District also possess some writings resembling pictographic paintings.

A fact indicative of pre-historic man's habitation in Orissa. The third hill extending North to South stands like a way to the immediate West of the Valley. But as this hill does not join with the other two, the valley is approachable from the North as well as from the South by a narrow pass. All the three hills taken together have the appearance of a pot with a lid on. The name Gudahandi, meaning a pot, for molasses, may have its origin in the impression its shape apparently conveys. A rivulet named Behera flows past the village. There are remains of a very old dam across this revulet, local people call it the work of Bhima, the second of the Pandavas.

Many visitors are coming here every year to see the living beauty of nature of kalahandi,also it becomes one of the famous picnic spot for school children & also for alder peoples.peoples are glad to see the beauties of hills around this place and also to see the picture scripts of the Indus valley civilisation.The local peoples of this area believes that some years ago,Bhima(One of the brother of Pandavas)was came here & he made a small dam near that village which looking like a pot(Handi),thatswhy that place was named Gudahandi.

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Flood On Kalahandi

Many peoples in three south-western districts of Odisha have been affected by flash floods as rivers submerged vast areas following heavy rains, state Revenue and Disaster Management minister S N Patro said .

In 151 villages of the affected blocks, relief camps have been set up and food served to the affected people through community kitchen, Patro told reporters after a visit to the flood-hit districts of Nabarangpur, Kalahandi and Koraput.

Patra, who was accompanied by Information Technology Minister Ramesh Majhi and Labour minister Puspendra Singhdeo , said he had asked the district administration to assess the damage as quick as possible he said.

The affected people would be compensated as per the provisions of the state relief code, he assured.

Patra said while 40,000 people of 71 villages in 17 gram panchayats of six blocks were affected in Kalahandi distrct, about 29,000 people of 60 villages in 22 of five blocks were hit in Nabarangapur district.

Similarly, around 15,000 people in 20 villages of Kotapada block in Koraput district were affected.

As many as 12 relief camps were set up in Kalahandi district and 2298 people were provided food through community kitchen in Kalahandi.

In kalahandi district the villages near by the Hati river was being flooding by the overflow water coming from Indravati project.The water of hati river was flowed above the bridge near Junagarh,many villages like Bhejipadar,Junagarh,bagdunguri were sorrounded by the flood water & communication between these villages are stop.Also the bridge joining to the NH-201 thatswhy the communication from Kalahandi district to Koraput district was disconnected.

Friday, August 6, 2010

Recent Devlopments

Kalahandi also is an example of disparity /contrasts that exist in many part of developing/underdeveloped world. On the one side, this district is famous for famine and starvation deaths: this is the same district that boasts of among the Highest Number of Rice Mills in Orissa. The number of rice mills in the district was around 150 in the year 2004-05. More than 70% have been built in the five years after commissioning of the Indravati project. The rice mill business is so lucrative that businessman from adjoining districts and states have invested directly or indirectly. Most of the rice mills purchase paddy from the government allotted villages through panchayat and sell the rice to Food Corporation of India. As many rice mills are competing for paddy, the price paid the farmers has increased in the recent past. But much needs to be done as the Rice mill Owners are primarily profit-oriented. No remarkable Farmers' Movement is seen in the areas so far. To articulate the voice & rights of the Kalahandia, people have waited for a 'mahatma'to descend amidst them.

some development in the recent past has shown some sign of progress. The Indravati Water Project, second biggest in the state has changed the landscape of southern Kalahandi, leading to two-three crops in a year. Because of this, blocks like Bhawanipatna, Jayapatna, Dharamgarh, Junagarh are witnessing rapid agriculural growth. Vedanta Alumina Limited (VAL), a subsidiary of Sterlite Industries, a major aluminium processor has made major investments in the Kalahandi-Koraput range to establish an alumina refinery at Lanjigarh. This project has been controversial since its announcement and has received criticism from environmentalists. Once this project is completed, it could be a big catalyst for industrial development in the region.

Orissa government has also set up a private medical college with a tie up with one South India based organisation in on Jaring near Junagarh block of Kalahandi. This has the potential of changing the health infrastructure of the adjoining blocks in the locality. Recently Orissa state Government has announced to establish a Government Engineering College and an Agriculture College at Bhawanipatna but local demand for a Central University in Kalahandi has not been accomplished.All this new steps for kalahandi are bring the bright future for the local peoples of this district.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Junagarh - City Of Temples & Natural Beauties

Junagarh is a town and a notified area committee in Kalahandi district in the Indian state of Orissa. It was the capital of the former state of Kalahandi. Junagarh is 26 km from Bhawanipatna, connecting National Highway 201.

Junagarh was a well-built fort. The fortified area has a number of temples with Oriya inscriptions. This is a place which has sculptural evidence of the sati rite, which was prevalent in medieval India, and was stopped during the British Raj by Lord William Bentinck. The sculptures are identified as sati pillars Junagarh was famous for its lakes and fruit garden"'cha kodi bandha naa kodi tota'", means 120 ponds and 180 orchard. Junagarh is also famous for its is also known as temple city of Kalahandi.


Maa Lankeshwari is the principal deity of the Naga clan at Junagarh. The deity is still reverred by the king and his descendants.. The descendants of the king perform puja in the temple of Lankeshwari on the auspicious day of Mulashtami as KHANDABASA

‘Khandabasa’ festival was observed at Goddess Lankeswari temple at Junagarh with the congregation of a large numbers of devotees.After performing the traditional rituals, the swords of Goddess Lankeswari and Bhairav were placed on the two sides of the Goddess Lankeswari altar by a representative of the royal family in standing position over a heap of rice.Goddess Lankeswari is treated as a war Goddess as thus the significance of the practice of ‘Khandabasa’. Tradition has it that during the rule of Chindakanaga, Ganga, Kalachuri and Naga dynasties the traditional sword of Goddess Lankeswari was worshipped to seek her blessings before going to a war.

Durga Puja and gajalaxmi puja are also important festival. Various pandals are constructed throughout the town.From few years Kalahandi Utsav is held in junagarh block.This utsav is also one type of festival for peoples of junagarh block.


* Lakshmi Sagar
* Siba Sagar
* Kastura Sagar
* Dhoba Sagar
* Rani Bandh


* Lankeswari Temple
* Dadhi baman Temple
* Jagannath Temple
* Trinath Temple
* Gayatri Temple
* Kanak Durga Temple
* Poda Mahadev Temple
* Sriram Temple


Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Ghumura - A Popular Folk Dance Form of Kalahandi

Numbers of national recognition have been given to different dance forms such as Odishi, Chhau, Ranapa etc and in various other spheres from Orissa, but not any single recognition for Ghumura so far?
Is it because scholars of Ghumura lack political lobby or because it belongs to KALAHANDI . Ghumura is more popular than Ranapa.

Ghumura is much ahead of many other dance forms in Orissa in terms of popularity of folk dance. It is more scholarly researched, cultivated and has a history of at least thousand years.

Not to blame achievement of any other folk dance, however, despite not being suitable in terms of connectivity and distance for rest of South Orissa, the favoritism, including for RDC office, educational institutions, High Court branch etc, by various chief ministers towards their home district Ganjam in the name of South Orissa may be well established by making rest of South Orissa including undivided Kalahandi, Koraput and Kandhama—Boudh backward, neglected and marginalized in various areas that include culture too.

Ghumura is one of the most sought and leading folk dance form in Orissa. It is classified as folk dance as the dress code of Ghumura resembles more like a tribal dance, but recent researchers argue different mudra and dance form present in Ghumura bear more resemblance with other classical dance form of India and the dance is not limited to tribal only.

The dance is associated with social entertainment, relaxation, love, devotion and friendly brotherhood among all class, creed and religion in the present days and can be classified as classical dance. Traditionally this dance is also associated with Nuakhai and Dasahara celebration in large parts of South and Western Orissa.

Ghumura dance is still popularly hidden in the village level in Western Orissa, Central Orissa,South Orissa and some parts of bordering Andhra Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Kalahandi is mainly known as land of Ghumura and has taken a leading rule in popularizing and retaining its unique identity of Ghumura dance.

Ghumura dance has got the opportunity to represent the nation in various international events Delhi, Moscow, Kolkata,Andaman Nicobar and various other cities in India and Abroad.

Mainly in Kalahandi district , Mahavir club of Bhawanipatna town is more famous for its ghumura dance. This club is bring the popularity of ghumura dance in India and also in abroad .

Despite that it’s most neglected and marginalized by Government of Orissa, which is not giving equal recognition to Ghumura and itsscholars and playing politics over the matter.

Economy Of Kalahandi

The economy of Kalahandi district represents the very foundation of the industries. The economically important minerals in the district including Bauxite, Graphites, Manganese, Iron and Quartz largely facilitate the growth of industrial sectors in its core, which has supported the economy of Kalahandi. The minerals, economically exploited serve as the raw materials for the domestic industries and also are exported. Thus the huge storage of minerals supports the economy of Kalahandi dually. The mines in the post independence period are nationalized, to encourage the proper utilization of these natural resources. With the solemn aim to stop piracy and to earn more by proper export marketing, the government has initiated the nationalization program of those mines with the commencement of the plan period. However, the increasing utilization of minerals has engendered the growth of the underground and opencast mines in Kalahandi, which involve a huge local workforce in the mining sector. Thus the mining sectors shares a significant contribution to prop up the domestic financial set up of Kalahandi.

Beside the contribution of the mining sectors there are three functional large-scale industrial units that supports the industrial economy of Kalahandi namely (1) Western Sugar & Chemical Industries Ltd, Bhawanipatna at Mathura in Dharamgarh Sub-Division, (2) Konark Growers Cooperative Spinning Mills Ltd, Kesinga and (3) Orissa Regional Cooperative Oil Seed Growers Union Ltd. at Bhawanipatna.

IPICOL has signed agreement with M/s Western India Sugar and Chemical Industries Ltd. India targeting for 2500 TCR capacity sugar project in Dharamgarh Sub-division of Kalahandi with an estimated project cost of Rs.32.00 crores. The mill at the beginning, though provided employment to a huge workforce, it had not the sanction of a commercial production. Therefore, besides being supporting the domestic economy the Western India Sugar and Chemical Industries Ltd. did not participate in the export marketing. With the approval of the project by State Government in 1993, the Sugar and Chemical Industries Ltd functionally started its commercial production.

In the second phase of the plan period, the Government has decided to set up a Spinning Mill Unit of 25,000 spindles at Kesinga in the district to help in reducing shortfall yarn requirement of the State. The industry by providing employment supports the economy of Kalahandi and at the same time induces development in the Gross National Product (G.N.P) of cotton. In addition to the government schemes and programs the cotton produced under the Cotton Development Programme is some extent instrumental to prop up the cotton requirement of this proposed spinning Mills Unit.

The Oil project in Orissa mainly encompassing the oil seeds and vegetable oil project in Kalahandi has found very profitable market in the national arena. The Oil Project in Kalahandi, so far has been deciphered by the eminent economist is the major contributor of the economy of Kalahandi.

Primarily an industrial district the contribution of the agricultural sector is no less important in the financial set up of Kalahandi. The extensive region of Kalahandi, except the western hilly tract is covered with fertile soils, which encouraged the growth of the agricultural sector. The climatic condition also is responsible for the thriving prosperity of agriculture. Agriculture in Kalahandi stimulates the growth of agro-based allied industries, which support the rural economy in Kalahandi on a large scale. Moreover nearly half of the total Geographical area of Kalahandi District 4,962 Sq.Km is covered with forest, which also encourages the forest-based industries in Kalahandi. Apart from these, the forest products are also exported and thus the forests in the district serve as the important contributor in the economic development of Kalahandi.

Sunday, July 25, 2010

Naveen seeks Rs 4500 cr from centre for KBK region

Orissa chief minister Naveen Patnaik on Saturday sought a grant of Rs 4,550 crore for the proposed 8-Year Perspective Plan to expedite development process in the backward KBK (Koraput-Bolangir-Kalahandi) districts.

Participating in the 55th Meeting of National Development Council (NDC) deliberations at New Delhi, Mr Patnaik raised the issue of backwardness of the KBK region and said early release of funds would help the state government carry forward the development and welfare measures launched for the districts.

The chief minister made it clear that Orissa had been striving hard to achieve sustainable and inclusive higher economic growth, accelerate overall development and a faster rate of poverty reduction. He claimed that the state government was quite hopeful to attain these objectives based on the impressive and steady growth in the economy.

“The state economy has grown at an average annual rate of 9.51% during the 10th Plan and at 8.73% per annum in the first three years of the 11th Plan, at a faster rate than the national average, despite challenges posed by the global economic slow-down. Such a positive trend has helped the state make higher plan outlays over the years and give emphasis on developing productive infrastructure including roads and irrigation,” Mr Patnaik said.

The chief minister said the union government should address expeditiously some other pressing issues such as funding for various initiatives under the Right to Education Act and sharing of funds between the Centre and states in ratio of 90:10 in view of low resource base and other development needs of states.

Friday, July 23, 2010

Vedanta sets up first Science College at Kalahandi’s Lanjigarh:-

Vedanta Aluminium has announced to set up first ever science college at Lanjigarh of Kalahandi District in Orissa. The full session will begin from the academic year 2011-12. The college will impart graduate level studies in Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Zoology, Botany and Environment Science. The college will be funded by the Lanjigarh Project Area Development Foundation (LPADF) – the special purpose vehicle formed for as per the advice of the Supreme Court.

In the last Lanjigarh Project Area Development Foundation (LPADF) meeting, it has been decided to open a graduate science college at Lanjigarh to provide opportunities to large no of students of Lanjigarh block as well as nearby area like Muniguda, Ambodola and Biswanathpur area; as no such college is available within 50 KM radius of Lanjigarh. The opening of the science college will fulfill the demand of local residents, who are demanding the science college for a long time.

Dr. Mukesh Kumar, Chief Operating Officer, Vedanta Aluminium Limited, Lanjigarh and Director of LPADF said, “It is the long due for the people of Lanjigarh. The opening of graduation level Vedanta Science College at Lanjigarh will provide opportunity to students living in the interior villages, who are finding it difficult to pursue graduation courses after XII, due to non-availability of any science college in the locality.” This college will be a great help for carry forwarding the education system, he also added.

Vedanta Aluminium Limited has proactively agreed to provide land for the college. DAV College Trust and Management society has also agreed to be the partner of the project by providing best education practice for the pupils of Kalahandi. A letter of confirmation to the effect has already been submitted to Collector of Kalahandi. DAV College Trust and Management is a premier education society in the country and has already set up more than hundred colleges across India.

In Lanjigarh, DAV College Trust and Management society has jointly set up an international school, which has been operating for the last four years and is one of the most modern schools within Kalahandi and Rayagada district . A number of renowned persons, including Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam has visited the school and has appreciated the level and quality of education being provided by this school.

Monday, July 19, 2010

District Overview

Kalahandi occupies the southwestern portion of Orissa, bordered to the north by the Districts of Balangir and Nawapara, to the south by the District of Rayagada, to the west by the Districts of Nawarangpur and Raipur (Chhatisgarh) and to the east by the Districts of Rayagada and Boudh.It has an area of 8,364.89 square kilometers and ranks 7th in area among the 30 districts of Orissa. The District Headquarters is at Bhawanipatna Town which stands almost to the eastern border.

The District is primarily agricultural, with over half the district
area covered with dense jungle forest. The District is primarily agricultural, with over half the district area covered with dense jungle forest. Industry is very limited, but bauxite and graphite deposits have been commercially exploited.

Kalahandi, (Oriya: କଳାହାଂଡି or locally pronounced as Kalahani), a district of Orissa (now known as Odisha) India, was known as Mahakantara (Great Forest) in ancient India. It is also known as Karunda Mandal, which means treasure of precious stones like karandam (Manik), Garnet (red stone), Beruz, Neelam (blue stone), and Alexandra etc. It is situated in the western Orissa region.

In the ancient time Kalahandi was a part of the different dynastys. In 4th century A.D. it was part of Mahakantara territory, in 9th and 10th century A.D. it was part of 'South Koshala' or 'Koshal' and later on also for sometime a feudatory of earstwhile Kalinga-Utkala empire of Gajapati rulers of Orissa. The region became independent after the downfall of the Gajapatis. History of Naga dynasty of Kalahandi is the only dynasty in Orissa having a record of thousand years (1050 - 1948 A.D.). Maharaja Pratap Keshari Deo, the Ex-Maharaja of Kalahandi, in one of his articles expressed his view that the historical significance of naming Kalahandi as Karunda Mandala is based on the availability of Corundum in this region. Maa Manikeswari (the goddess of Manikya), the clan deity of the Naga kings of Kalahandi may have also necessitated the adoption of the name.